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Fig. 1

(A) ACC, anterior cingulate cortex; DG, dentate gyrus; mPFC, medial prefrontal cortex. CA1, CA2 = Regions in the hippocampal circuit. Inhibitory interneurons are marked red in the figure. mPFC and ACC are meant to represent inputs to the hippocampus, which begin at the DG. This figure demonstrates the role of interneurons in generating phase-locked electrical activity in the cortex. (B) Research has supported that disruptions in APP can affect cortical oscillations. This figure demonstrates how pathologic amyloid-beta plaques could disrupt the circuit. Created with BioRender.

Fig. 2

This figure demonstrates the therapeutic effects of Gamma Entrainment Using Sensory Stimuli (GENUS) on biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease including neuronal atrophy, microglial activated inflammatory response, and amyloid-beta plaque buildup. Images (A) and (B) show theoretic preliminary and post 40 Hz treatment conditions, respectively. Created with BioRender.

First page of article

A growing body of research supports an important role in the effect of brain waves and their dynamics on cognitive function. Studies have shown there are differences between the brain rhythms of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and healthy individuals, namely reduction of gamma waves. In this article, we will review the current research about the significance of these changes in brain oscillations and a proposed biological mechanism for decreased oscillations in the gamma frequency. Additionally, we discuss the efforts to stimulate neural networks at this frequency to alleviate symptoms and prevent neurodegeneration.

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