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Fig. 1

This model contains a non-exhaustive list of factors that are included in the study parenting. For sake of clarity, only factors that are explicitly discussed in the chapter are depicted.

Fig. 2

This conceptual model depicts the relations between temperament, parenting, anxiety, and their correlates as reviewed in this chapter. The model builds off of models developed by Liu and Pérez-Edgar and Vélez-Agosto et al.

Temperament and parenting remain commonly studied constructs in relation to anxiety development. Inhibited temperament continues to be one of the most robust predictors of anxiety. Avoidance-promoting and overcontrolling parenting behaviors have emerged as specific correlates and predictors of child anxiety. This review highlights recent advances in the understanding of these constructs, their complex interplay in the etiology of anxiety, and how etiological factors must be understood within cultural context. Research must continue to acknowledge multiple levels of influence, including biological underpinnings of emotion and behavior, child-driven effects on parenting, diverse caregivers, and societal values that shape parental perceptions and behavior.

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